CIS Newsletter

No. 188
May 2005


CIS Newsletter celebrates 17 years & still going strong! Bringing news to over 137 countries in the CIS Network


Contents

  1. Editorial
  2. Hot Topic: TUTB merges into European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and Safety
  3. Charting good futures for safety and health professionals: first ever Chartered Safety and Health practitioners from November 2005
  4. News from around the World - Belgium, Canada, China, CIS HQ, Denmark, Finland, ILO, Japan, Pakistan, Singapore, Sweden, UK and USA
  5. FOCUS: Corporate Manslaughter: The UK Draft Bill 2005 by Michael Welham
  6. OSHE web sites
  7. Diary of Events

Editorial

Dear CIS Colleagues

Good to hear from many of you this last month.

IMPORTANT NEWS... You will find a note BELOW in this edition regarding the CIS European Meeting to be held in Geneva at the ILO HQ on Tuesday 17 and Wednesday 18 May 2005. This is a very important meeting and you are urged to attend. These are changing times and CIS Network must look to the future... time to discuss and shape the OSH information world! See details below.

You should inform the CIS HQ as soon as possible if you intend going to CIS meeting in Geneva on 17-18 May 2005.

The numbers attending the meeting grows daily... the following countries have already said they be represented - Bulgaria, Egypt, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK

Many are staying at the Hotel Cristal, Geneva, Switzerland.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Many thanks to you who have sent emails and news. As always these are always gratefully received and are used as soon as possible. You will see that many are preparing for the work this year in many ways.

If you are planning any publications, conferences, seminars or training courses, then please send your details to me so that we can share your efforts with others. Don't forget to send me your latest news! It is amazing how much the CIS Newsletter content gets re-used around the world.

You know I welcome ideas for inclusion in the future editions of this Newsletter. Let me know if there are any areas you would wish to see covered in future.

URGENT
More of you will be getting the CIS Newsletter by email... I have checked against the published list that CIS HQ provided and where an email number exists will send the Newsletter to that address and cross you off the mailing list for the printed version. Remember you will get the news at least 3 weeks earlier than the printed version!

NOT HEARD FROM ANYONE SAYING THEY REALLY NEED THE PRINTED VERSION!!!
IF FOR ANY REASON YOU STILL NEED THE PRINTED VERSION PLEASE LET ME KNOW
MY CONTACT DETAILS ARE BELOW.

Remember you can see CIS Newsletter on the web site www.sheilapantry.com/cis where back issues are stored.

Also on emails... Some of you who have changed your email number and addresses in recent months, please let CIS Headquarters know your new email/address and also let me know as well - otherwise you will not get the CIS Newsletter or other news.

Remember >>>>
Surviving in 2005... By promotion, publicity and telling the World that CIS and its network exists!

All good wishes to you, your families and your colleagues.

Sheila Pantry, OBE

85 The Meadows, Todwick, Sheffield S26 1JG, UK
Tel: +44 1909 771024
Fax: +44 1909 772829
Email: sp@sheilapantry.com
www.oshworld.com
www.sheilapantry.com
www.shebuyersguide.com


Two million work deaths a year says the ILO on World Day for Safety and Health at Work 28 April 2005

Faced with a rising toll of occupational related death, injury and sickness, the International Labour Office (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) on 28 April 2005 marked the World Day for Safety and Health at Work by highlighting the need for a preventative safety culture worldwide.

According to new estimates by the ILO, the number of job related accidents and illnesses, which annually claim more than two million lives, appears to be rising because of rapid industrialization in some developing countries.

What's more, a new assessment of workplace accidents and illness indicates that the risk of occupational disease has become by far the most prevalent danger faced by people at their jobs - accounting for 1.7 million annual work related deaths and outpacing fatal accidents by four to one.

In its latest estimates, the ILO found that in addition to job related deaths, each year there are some 268 million non fatal workplace accidents in which the victims miss at least three days of work as a result, as well as 160 million new cases of work related illness. The ILO has previously estimated that workplace accidents and illness are responsible for the loss of some four per cent of the world's GDP in compensation and absence from work.

Broken down by region, the figures indicate that workplace accidents have levelled off in many industrialized and newly industrialized countries, while some countries now undergoing rapid development in Asia and Latin America are experiencing increases. For example, the ILO analysis showed that while the number of fatal and non-fatal workplace accidents held steady or declined in most regions, in China the estimated number of fatal accidents rose from 73,500 in 1998 to 90,500 in 2001, while accidents causing three or more days absence from work increased from 56 million to 69 million. Meanwhile, in Latin America, a rise in the total number of persons employed and growth in the construction sector, particularly in Brazil and Mexico, appear to have lead to an annual increase in fatal accidents from 29,500 to 39,500 over the same time period.

"This is happening because in the newly developing countries workers are often coming out of the rural areas, with few skills and very little training in safe work practices", says Jukka Takala, Director of the ILO's Safework Programme. "Most have never worked with heavy machinery, and some have little or no experience with industrial hazards such as electricity, so they don't know how dangerous these things can be. Yet these are elements of the kinds of jobs that are available for low skilled workers in rapidly industrializing countries."

"Once countries reach a more mature stage of development, there is a shift from construction to less dangerous service jobs and the accident rates begin to level off. We are seeing this now in South Korea, for example", Takala added.

The most common workplace illnesses are cancers from exposure to hazardous substances, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory diseases, hearing loss, circulatory diseases and communicable diseases caused by exposure to pathogens. In many industrialized countries, where the number of deaths from work related accidents has been falling, deaths from occupational disease, notably asbestosis, is on the rise. Globally, asbestos alone is responsible for 100,000 occupational deaths per year. Meanwhile, in the agricultural sector, which employs half the world's workforce and is predominant in most underdeveloped countries, the use of pesticides causes some 70,000 poisoning deaths each year, and at least seven million cases of acute and long term non-fatal illnesses, as stated in the assessment.

Improving the health of workers has led the ILO and WHO to cooperate closely on occupational safety and health issues. WHO helps countries to implement preventive strategies with a network of 70 Collaborating Centres, based on its Global Strategy on Occupation Health for All.

"Despite significant improvements in health and safety in many parts of the world over the past several decades, the global challenge of providing for worker health and safety is ever greater today", said Dr Kerstin Leitner, Assistant Director General for Healthy Environments and Sustainable Development at WHO. "Significant and more long lasting health gains could be achieved if greater emphasis were placed on effective policies and programmes for primary prevention. In many locations, particularly in developing countries, these are weak or virtually non-existent. From a public health perspective, prevention through safety measures is better and also less expensive not only to workers individually, but to the society at large."

The three cornerstones of WHO's occupational health work focus on supporting the development and implementation of occupational health policies and action plans to countries in strengthening surveillance, estimating the occupational health burden and in developing "basic" national occupational health profiles. Another key role is to build capacity through a network of WHO Collaboration Centres in Occupational Health making current information on various risk factors (chemical, physical, ergonomic, psychosocial, biological, accidents) widely available. Finally, WHO defines a minimum package of occupational health services that each country should establish with a focus on primary prevention.

The ILO also cited new data showing that in the construction industry, at least 60,000 fatal workplace accidents occur each year worldwide - or about one death every 10 minutes. About 17 per cent of all fatal workplace accidents occur in this sector, while construction workers also face a number of health risks, including exposure to asbestos laden dusts, silica and hazardous chemicals. In line with ILO conventions, recommendations and guidelines, the report pinpoints the need for better planning and coordination with regard to addressing safety and health issues on construction sites, as well as a greater focus on reducing work related ill health and disease.

More generally, the ILO also predicted increases in the number of young people (age 15 to 24) and older people (age 60 and over) entering the workforce over the next 15 years, and warned that workers in these two age groups tend to suffer higher on the job accident rates. The report calls for the development of specially tailored accident and disease prevention programmes for workers in these two age groups.

Special World Day commemorative activities and events are expected in more than 100 countries. Both the ILO and WHO are committed to promoting and strengthening increased cooperation at the national level between ministries of labour and ministries of health as well as businesses, workers' organizations and other civil society stakeholders.

Almost 350,000 of these deaths are work-related accidents. The rest is due to work-related illnesses. More than 400,000 deaths are caused by exposure to chemicals. ILO representatives emphasize that "even though there is no such thing as zero risk, work accidents must not be seen as fated. They don't just happen. They are caused".

The link to World Day for Safety and Health at Work home page can be found online at www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/worldday/index.htm

Various activities took place around the world. CIS HQ received news of ...


European CIS Meeting in Geneva on 17 - 18 May 2005

From Emmert Cleventine, CIS HQ ...

"To provide a meeting place for Centres that will not be able to make it to Orlando in September 2005, and in response to the desire for regional meetings expressed at recent annual meetings, CIS will be happy to welcome Centres from Europe and the Mediterranean to Geneva on 17 and 18 May. (Representatives from any Centres worldwide will of course be welcome.)

As CIS is now formulating it's programme for the next two years, and it was a core group of European National Centres that worked with the ILO and ISSA to set CIS up in the first place, the May 2005 get-together will focus on the relevance of the Centres network to the institutional programmes of CIS and of the Centres. Centres can expect to receive invitations to this consultation soon, together with a draft agenda."


HOT TOPIC

TUTB merges into European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and Safety

The European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety (TUTB), set up by the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) in 1989 to help raise health and safety at work standards in Europe, ceased to exist on 1 April this year. The TUTB has now merged with two other ETUC centres of expertise - the European Trade Union Institute (ETUI) and the European Trade Union College (ETUCO) - to become the European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and Safety (ETUI-REHS). The three separate ETUC institutes have now become a single entity made up of three departments and 60 staff.

Commenting on the launch of the new institute, ETUC General Secretary John Monks hoped that it would "become the single best and most respected European knowledge and competence centre in relation to the world of labour".

"The new institute will provide the kind of research, expertise and support needed by decision-makers to maintain the impetus for Social Europe", said former TUTB Director Marc Sapir, who now heads the new centre. The ETUI-REHS director said he believed that the new ETUC institute "will promote international solidarity, justice and well-being by giving protection to workers both in the EU Member States and the countries preparing to join".

The new centre will bring together professional economic and social research expertise, engineering and ergonomic knowledge, and training activities that can make the new international not-for-profit organization a real asset for the European Union as a whole. "There are many overlaps between these areas of knowledge which, when united in one organization, will bring a real value-added to the work of our movement", said John Monks.

The TUTB may have gone, but the vast field of health and safety at work, which is key to workers' rights, has not been abandoned. The staff of the late TUTB, including its research officers and director, will carry on its studies and publishing activities in the new institute's health and safety department, and will continue providing expertise to support the trade union members of the European institutions involved in these areas, and ETUC member organizations.

Over the fifteen years of its existence, the TUTB was involved in a wide range of areas, from the safety of machinery to cancer prevention, from ergonomics to the working of preventive services, from policy debates in the European Parliament to support for trade union reps in works councils. At all times, the TUTB's staff consistently argued that workplace health problems were not just the secondary technical matters that some claimed, but actually supremely political issues that reflects how we see society. At a time when challenging European debates, like the reform of European chemicals legislation, are moving into their critical phase, the new European Trade Union Institute's health and safety department means to continue its fight as part of a body with more clout, for a Community health at work policy that is more aware of workers' and citizen's rights.

ETUI-REHS Management

More information: Denis Grégoire, European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and Safety, Health and Safety Department, Bd du Roi Albert II, 5 bte 5, B-1210 Brussels, Belgium | Tel: + 32 2 224 05 60 | Fax: + 32 2 224 05 61 | Email: hesa@etuc.org | Head of Information, ETUI-REHS Health and Safety Department Tel.: + 32 2 224 05 52


Reminder... getting the best from CIS website

CIS offers you a bibliographic resource in three parts, presenting all the documents received by its documentation centre since 2002.

To see the latest listing see www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/collection/index.htm

You will find the most relevant of these publications selected, described and abstracted in the CISDOC database that is also available on a number of other services that are aggregated with other OSH sources see www.OSHUPDATE.com, www.CCOHS.ca and www.ovid.com


Charting good futures for safety and health professionals: first ever Chartered Safety and Health practitioners from November 2005

This last week sees the achievement of Chartered status for those working in the safety and health profession. Announced at its annual conference in Cardiff, IOSH (Institution of Occupational Safety & Health) will designate the first ever Chartered Safety and Health practitioners from November this year - 2005.

Chartered status will result in increased status and prestige for IOSH members, similar to that already enjoyed by other professionals like accountants and bankers, and will raise standards by a programme of mandatory CPD (Continuing Professional Development).

IOSH President, Lawrence Waterman, said: "This is the news we've been waiting for - it's a real milestone for IOSH and the whole of safety and health practice. Chartered status will enable members to have real impact in their workplaces.

"IOSH is determined to continue driving up standards and mandatory CPD. Making CPD mandatory and awarding chartered status for individual practitioners, will give safety and health professionals the calling card of competence."

The new CPD system will allow members to proactively manage their career online, while the new membership structure is designed to reflect the practitioners' hard-earned skills and experience.

"We will be able to create a structured career path, fine-tune our skills and commit to lifelong learning with the new system," Lawrence continued, "It does not depend on attending lots of courses or filling forms - most will find their normal work activities allow them to complete CPD requirements.

"The new status will reflect our level of professionalism and the crucial role we play in the workplace, and it will ensure we are truly 'competent to the core'."

To find out more about chartered status, what it will mean to you, or to register for CPD, visit the dedicated microsite at www.iosh.co.uk/corecompetent

IOSH, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire LE18 1NN, UK | Tel: +44 (0)116 257 3100 | Fax: +44 (0)116 257 3101 | www.iosh.co.uk


Noise - box it up!

Young people across the UK are being urged to listen out for their favourite sound - and record it in their own 'noisybox'.

This year's IOSH (Institution of Occupational Safety and Health) Children's Competition, sponsored by Royal Mail, is on the theme of the European Week for Safety and Health at Work - noise - and gives young people the chance to win a share of hundreds of pounds worth of prizes and see their design used in IOSH's 2006 calendar.

The competition, which has a catchline of 'Your hearing - you can't see it, but you'd soon miss it' asks children aged 5-11 to get creative by illustrating their favourite noise using our easy-to-make 'noisybox'. You can colour, draw or paint the box, and even insert something representing your favourite noise inside!

Around half a million people in Great Britain each year suffer from hearing difficulties caused by exposure to noise at work - and that doesn't include those who suffer irreparable damage to their hearing outside the workplace.

"We hope our competition will make the children think outside the box," IOSH President Lawrence Waterman said, "and get them to realise that their hearing is something they must not take for granted.

"Too many people damage their hearing needlessly, and sometimes it isn't even their own fault. Just think about it - how would you feel if you couldn't hear your friends and family talking to you?

"Our noisybox competition gives children the chance to stretch their creative wings, while also bringing home to them that their hearing will not be for life if they don't look after it."

To take part all you need to do is contact Maxine Freeman on Tel: +44 (0)116 257 3189 for a noisybox template.

The dedicated webpage has information on rules and some ideas to get your imagination going too. You can also download the noisybox template.

You will then need to get your noisybox to us by 1 September 2005 by sending it to: noisybox, IOSH, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire, LE18 1NN.

IOSH, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicestershire LE18 1NN, UK | Tel: +44 (0)116 257 3100 | Fax: +44 (0)116 257 3101 | www.iosh.co.uk


News from Japan

JISHA, the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association latest newsletter contains articles on

JISHA issues General handbook on Industrial Health 2004

This 186-page book covers a wide range of information:

Available in English from: JISHA, 5-35-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014, Japan | Tel/Fax: +81 3 3454 4596 | Email: kokusai@jisha.or.jp | www.jisha.or.jp


News from Pakistan

Centre for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment Lahore (CIWCE), Pakistan Annual Report of Activities 2004 is available in English and shows a wealth of activities. The Centre is the focal training, advisory and information-providing institution. It is the only institution of its kind in the country. The contents highlight the range of training courses, conference, publications, responses to the Centre.

Ergonomic carpet weaving loom

Of particular note is the newly designed ergonomic carpet weaving loom which was design at the Centre after extensive discussions with industry experts, workers, managers and design engineers. This loom gives an opportunity to the workers to stretch their legs and backs whilst working. Arms and footrests have been provided. A workbench instead of the traditional wooded plank has been provided.

Many employers are replacing the old model with new looms and better OSH controls with their own investments.

Saeed Awan, CIWCE, Lahore, Pakistan | www.ciwce.org.pk


ALA honours Mrs. Laura Bush for service to libraries

The American Library Association has recently honoured Mrs. Laura Bush for her years of support to America's libraries and librarians at the Martin Luther King Jr. Public Library in downtown Washington, D.C. ALA Immediate Past President Carla Hayden presented Mrs. Bush with a citation and a gift of Kira-Kira and Kitten's First Full Moon, the 2005 winners of the Newbery and Caldecott medals, respectively.

"Mrs. Bush has been a tireless supporter of libraries and library workers during her tenure in the White House," said Carol Brey-Casiano, president of the American Library Association and director of the El Paso Public Library in El Paso, Texas. "She has been an exemplary role model to women and men considering the profession of librarianship, and she has been a consistent advocate for the importance of reading since her days in the Texas Governor's mansion. Librarians and library users everywhere owe her thanks," she continued.

In 2002, Mrs. Bush hosted the White House Conference on School Libraries, an event which highlighted the power of school libraries to make a difference in student achievement. In 2003, Mrs. Bush was a guiding force behind "Recruitment of Librarians for the 21st Century," legislation designed to help attract and retain librarians.


Encyclopaedia of Toxicology

The second edition of the Encyclopedia of Toxicology continues its comprehensive survey of toxicology. This new edition continues to present entries devoted to key concepts and specific chemicals. There has been an increase in entries devoted to international organizations and well-known toxic-related incidents such as Love Canal and Chernobyl. Along with the traditional scientifically based entries, new articles focus on the societal implications of toxicological knowledge including environmental crimes, chemical and biological warfare in ancient times, and a history of the U.S. environmental movement.

With more than 1150 entries, this second edition has been expanded in length, breadth and depth, and provides an extensive overview of the many facets of toxicology.

Key Features:

Editor-in-Chief: Philip Wexler


FOCUS

Corporate Manslaughter: The UK Draft Bill 2005 by Michael Welham

There has in recent years been a chequered and grim history of fatal incidents and disasters, often with a large loss of life that has caused alarm with the public. They consider that those in senior management who had "control" of the organizations have walked away with no accountability. Since 1992 there have been 34 prosecution cases in the UK for work-related manslaughter but only seven organisations have been convicted. This continues to prompt a widespread view that the legal system is not delivering justice.

The seven successful corporate manslaughter prosecutions have one factor in common in that they are small organisations where the management has a more 'hands on' involvement. Whilst in large organizations, management is generally remote from the operations. The first corporate manslaughter prosecution occurred in December 1994 when OLL Limited (formerly Active Leisure and Learning Ltd) became the first company in English legal history to be convicted of the common law crime of manslaughter. Peter Kite, 45, its managing director, also became the first director to be given an immediate custodial sentence for a manslaughter conviction arising from the operation of a business and was sentenced to three years imprisonment (reduced to two years on appeal).

Following from that case others convicted of corporate manslaughter include Jackson Transport (Ossett) Limited, English Brothers Ltd. Denis Clothier and Sons, Teglgaard Hardwood Ltd, Nationwide Heating systems Ltd and Keymark Services. At the time of writing Gillian Beckingham a design services manager for Barrow Borough Council is on trial for seven counts of manslaughter following the deaths of seven people from legionnaire's disease emanating from the heating system in a Council controlled building. However, the Council has been acquitted of a corporate manslaughter charge. Also on trial for manslaughter are three executives from Railtrack and two executives from Balfour Beatty and Balfour Beatty is charged with corporate manslaughter. In addition to the corporate manslaughter cases ten directors have received custodial sentences for workplace offences and it is a list that is growing.

A drastic change in the law?

It was identified in the 1990s that there needed to be a drastic change in the law which resulted in the proposals of the Law Commission's 1996 report "Legislating the Criminal Code: Involuntary Manslaughter" [1]. This included a proposal for a new offence of corporate manslaughter including a draft Bill. The Labour government promised changes but did nothing until 2000 when they produced a consultation paper "Reforming the Law on Involuntary Manslaughter: the Government's Proposals" [2]. There has been no progress until 23 March 2005 when they produced a modified draft Corporate Manslaughter Bill accompanied by another consultation period.

The new law will hold organisations which have fatal outcomes accountable for gross failings by their senior management and deals with the problem of the current law, where there is the need to find a "directing mind" of a company who is personally guilty of gross negligence. In large organisations those at senior levels are seen to be remote from frontline operations even though decisions made in the boardroom affect the way in which the organisation operates. Therefore, it has been impossible to identify an individual and where prosecutions have proceeded, they have not been successful. This has not been the case with small companies where directors have more direct control over the daily activities, and they have been successfully prosecuted.

To bridge the gap the thrust of the new law of corporate manslaughter will focus on a gross failing by senior managers to take reasonable care for the safety of their workers or members of the public and cause a person's death. One area of concern for many is that the new law will not encompass individual directors as part of the corporate manslaughter prosecution. However, a case for individual manslaughter will be possible where an individual's conduct makes them liable to be charged with gross negligence manslaughter which applies where a duty of care is owed at common law. The ordinary rules of causation will apply and management failure must have been more than a minimal contribution to the death and that a break in the chain of events did not intervene in the linking of management to the death.

Management needs to identify that the new offence is based on failures in the way an organisation's activities are managed or organised and understand, that "management failure" focuses on the systems and practices for carrying out the organisation's work. Therefore, the legislation is designed to capture corporate failings in the management of risk and applies to failings by an organisation's senior managers, either individually or collectively. This means that the offence is not limited to questions about the individual responsibility of senior managers, but instead considers wider questions about how, at a senior management level, activities were organised and managed.

The new Bill encompasses corporations and Crown bodies but not unincorporated bodies such as partnerships, trade unions and some registered friendly societies because they do not have a distinct legal personality. It is because they do not exist as a legal entity in the way that corporations do they cannot be prosecuted for gross negligence manslaughter, although importantly individual members can and that will remain the case.

Those who advocate a "director in the dock" as part of the corporate manslaughter offence will not be satisfied with the new law. However, individuals in any capacity whilst in a workplace activity can be liable to prosecution for gross negligence manslaughter, with a custodial sentence available. In the case of directors, disqualification proceedings under existing legislation will also be an option and the law already exists for that action.

A director can be readily identified as having responsibilities however; there is the question of the identity and culpability of a senior manager following a fatality. To apportion blame that person will need to be identified as making management decisions about, or actually managing, the activities of the organisation as a whole or a substantial part of it. The role will be "substantial" and that will be important for any investigation to determine the level of management responsibility and involvement. For example the situation where the management at regional level within an organisation such as a company with a national network of operations, abides by management decisions of policy and procedures devolved from head office. In this situation the focus of the investigation will include the head office as well as the regional management to identify failings. In a smaller organisation where management's involvement will be more hands on, the responsibility for management failings will be more identifiable.

Serious Offence

Corporate manslaughter is a serious offence under the general criminal law and it is not regulatory such as a breach of health and safety legislation. This means that the police will investigate corporate manslaughter cases and the Crown Prosecution Service will prosecute. The health and safety enforcing authorities will provide support to the investigation and there is already in place an established protocol for liaison between the relevant parties.

For those found guilty of corporate manslaughter the sanction will be an unlimited fine and that can be set at a very high level. In addition to the fine, the courts will be able to impose remedial orders, to be addressed within a specified time. For the offending organisation that could be very costly and in some cases the combination of a fine and the cost of putting things right may render the company insolvent. It will not be the aim of the courts to dissolve a company but if it is so deficient in the management of health and safety, it may have no option.

There is the question as to what cost an organisation will have to expend to meet the health and safety standards so as not to be prosecuted for corporate manslaughter. The answer is that if an organisation has systems in place to meet current health and safety law it would have little additional expenditure. In the event of a fatality the investigation will focus on the management system and management involvement and so ongoing evidence of compliance will be a positive approach. Those companies who pay little notice to or have limited health and safety procedures can expect to spend more in ensuring that they meet the requirements of health and safety legislation.

Current situation

The situation at the time of writing is that the draft Corporate Manslaughter Bill is published for pre-legislative scrutiny by Parliament, a process under which a Parliamentary committee or committees consider the draft legislation and makes recommendations. The Government also seeks responses from industry, trades unions and other interested parties by June of this year. The new law will apply to England and Wales and it is anticipated that both Northern Ireland and Scotland will enact similar legislation.

References:

  1. The Law Commission's report Legislating the Criminal Code: Involuntary Manslaughter, 1996, Law Commission No 237, HMSO.
  2. Reforming the Law on Involuntary Manslaughter: the Government's Proposals, 2000, The Home Office. Draft Corporate Manslaughter Bill, March 2005

Michael Welham is a Director of Total Control Risk Management. He specialises in corporate manslaughter and the audit - development and leadership in safety management systems. He is an UK ex Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Principal Inspector and was a member of the HSE's Manslaughter at Work working group. He speaks at seminars, conferences and management development events on the subject corporate manslaughter and runs specialist 'understanding corporate manslaughter' workshops. He is the Author of Tolley's Corporate Killing - A Managers Guide to Legal Compliance and co-author of The Poacher and the Gamekeeper - Leadership for Risk Mitigation in Occupational Health and Safety.

Mike will be speaking at EurOhse2005 Conference - for details see www.angelbc.co.uk


On 20 April 2005 - International Noise Awareness Day EUROPEAN UNION SAYS "STOP THAT NOISE!"

A Europe-wide campaign was launched on 20 April 2005 -International Noise Awareness Day, to tackle one of Europe's most persistent workplace health problems - noise at work

Noise-induced hearing loss has been recognised as 'the most prevalent, irreversible industrial disease'. But actually noise at work can cost you much more than your hearing! It can be a causal factor in accidents, contribute to work-related stress, and may act together with other workplace hazards to cause ill health.

The figures show that noise at work is still a serious but often underestimated threat to millions of European workers. The issue comes under the spotlight as the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work launches its major campaign in more than 30 countries throughout the continent. Backed by the European Parliament, Commission and Luxembourg EU Presidency, the campaign, with its slogan 'STOP THAT NOISE!', will culminate in the annual European Week for Safety and Health at Work on 24-28 October 2005.

Vladimir Spidla, Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, said: 'Noise goes beyond hearing problems; it can cause workplace accidents and increase stress levels. Workers will get more hearing protection under new measures coming into force in all EU Member States by February 2006 which will set a limit of 87 decibels for workers' daily exposure to noise. I welcome the fact that this campaign will raise awareness of these measures'.

The campaign, which will be underpinned by a range of printed and online information, including examples of good practice, will be supported by thousands of events in 31 European countries, including Member States, as well as candidate and EFTA countries. Coordinated by the Agency's network of National Focal Points, events will range from training initiatives and promotional campaigns to seminars and workshops. In addition, businesses and occupational safety organisations will be invited to sign an online campaign charter to demonstrate their commitment to more effective noise management.

'Our goal is not only to raise awareness of the many risks which noise brings to the workplace and the workers', said Hans-Horst Konkolewsky, the Agency's Director. 'Equally important is to go one step further and provide the tools to help improve noise management across European industries and sectors. The campaign will target a wide spectrum of stakeholders and through them individual companies, providing them with guides, checklists for risk assessment and examples of good practice solutions all freely available from our website. What we hope to achieve at the end of the day is a clear understanding that the threat of noise goes far beyond traditionally 'loud' industries, that it can cost you more than your hearing, but also that it can be effectively controlled and its risks prevented or considerably reduced.'

Full details can be found at the Agency's special European Week 2005 website http://osha.europa.eu/en/campaigns/ew2005

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Via 33, E-48009 Bilbao - Spain | Tel: + 34 94 479 4360 | Fax: + 34 94 479 4383 | Email: information@osha.eu.int | http://osha.europa.eu


The Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005

The Waste Framework Directive (Directive 75/442/EEC) regulates, subject to the certain exclusions, the management of all types of waste ("Directive waste"). The Hazardous Waste Directive supplements the Waste Framework Directive by imposing additional requirements in relation to Directive waste which displays certain hazardous properties. These requirements have previously been transposed by the Special Waste Regulations 1996 through controls on "special waste". These Regulations repeal the Special Waste Regulations 1996 and replace the term "special waste" with "hazardous waste".

The Hazardous Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2005
SI 2005 No. 894 ISBN 0110726855 66 pages
www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2005/894/made


ASTM International 2005 Johnson Conference on Critical Issues in Monitoring Asbestos to Be Held in July 2005

ASTM International 2005 Johnson Conference on Critical Issues in Monitoring Asbestos: The 1% Rule, Definitions, Settled Dust, Analysis of Fibrous Talc, and other Monitoring Applications will be held July 18-22, 2005, at the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. USA. Sponsored by ASTM Committee D22 on Air Quality, the symposium is open to all interested individuals. Membership in ASTM International is not required.

Once again, this forum in 2005 will include presentations on evolving asbestos monitoring issues in the following sessions:

The fee to attend this symposium for session chairs, presenters, and ASTM members is $325.00 if paid online and $350.00 on-site. The fee for non-members is $375.00 if paid online and $400.00 if paid on-site. The fee is waived for students with a valid I.D.

For information about the symposium, which includes a program agenda, registration, and hotel details, access the ASTM website at www.astm.org/MEETINGS/COMMIT/D22symp.html


Corporate Social Responsibility Failures in the Oil Industry
edited by Charles Woolfson and Matthias Beck

This book directly challenges the oil industry's claims of corporate good citizenship, now widely advanced as part of a global public relations offensive. The volume spans the industry's reach, from the troubled waters of the U.K. offshore Continental Shelf, with its horrendous legacy of the Piper Alpha oil rig disaster, to the inhospitable shores of Newfoundland, with its own tragic legacy of lost lives, to the new frontier of oil corporate colonialism in the former Soviet Union and the icy plains of Alaska.

The central theme of violations of basic labor rights and of health and environmental protection standards will make uncomfortable reading in the boardroom. It is equally essential reading for those who seek to improve the position of workers and communities within the oil industry's global reach.

Charles Woolfson who is one of the Speakers at the EurOhse2005 conference www.angelbc.co.uk is Reader in Industrial Relations, School of Law, at the University of Glasgow. His main areas of research have been labor disputes, socio-legal studies of the regulation of health and safety, corporate social responsibility, and the offshore oil industry. He is a Member of the Glasgow Baltic Studies Unit. Woolfson has also held a Marie Curie Research Fellowship in Lithuania and a Visiting Fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities at the University of Edinburgh and is currently Marie Curie Chair (2004-2007) at the University of Latvia.

Matthias Beck is Research Professor of Risk Management at Glasgow Caledonian University and Director of the Cullen Centre for Risk and Governance (CRAG). He formerly lectured in economics at the St. Andrews and Glasgow universities. In addition to economics, his main teaching has been in the field of research methods. Beck has a doctorate from MIT and has conducted research in labor market studies, corporate governance, and quantitative sociology. He has co-authored numerous articles with Charles Woolfson on socio-legal and regulatory issues, and recently has published on the topics of financial governance and banking failures.

Corporate Social Responsibility Failures in the Oil Industry, edited by Charles Woolfson and Matthias Beck, is published by Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., 26 Austin Avenue, P.O. Box 337, Amityville, NY 11701, USA | Tel: +1 631 691 1270 | Fax: +1 631 6911770 | toll-free orderline (800) 638-7819 | Email: info@baywood.com | http://baywood.com
224 pages, Cloth, ISBN: 0-89503-293-7, $36.95


Work at Height - HSE explains what The Regulations mean for the Construction Industry

New regulations came into force on 6 April 2005, applying to all work at height where there is a risk of a fall liable to cause personal injury. To assist the construction industry the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has today published a Question and Answer Brief to explain what the new regulations mean in practice and the standards HSE expects the industry to meet. It is available on the HSE website.

Commenting on the new regulations Kevin Myers, HSE's Chief Inspector of Construction, said: "Falls from height remain the single biggest cause of workplace deaths and major injuries in the construction industry, responsible for some 40 per cent of fatalities in 2004/05. Preventing falls from height is a key area where the construction industry can take steps to drive down the number of accidents. The regulations give the industry an opportunity to refocus efforts to improve standards for work at height and reduce deaths and injuries".

"A particular area of concern for HSE is the number of major injuries caused by low falls - it's worth pointing out that there are more major injuries resulting from low falls than from falls above two metres. The new regulations remove the old division between low and high falls; the 'two-metre rule' for high falls has not been retained because dutyholders need to prevent falls from any height. HSE inspectors will ensure that the existing standards are maintained but that greater attention is also paid to the risk from low falls."

Mr Myers also made the following key points:

HSE's publication of the Question and Answer Brief for the Construction Industry on the Work at Height Regulations 2005 demonstrates its commitment to being a good partner - working with others to improve health and safety.

The Brief is free and can be downloaded at www.hse.gov.uk/construction/pdf/fallsqa.pdf

The Work at Height Regulations 2005 (S.I. 2005 No 735) are accessible via the HMSO website at www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2005/735/made

Printed copies are published by The Stationery Office Ltd (TSO). For further details contact TSO | Tel: 0870 6005522 | Fax: 0870 600 5533 | Email: customer.services@tso.co.uk


HSE launches Work at Height Regulations - A Brief Guide

The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has launched a brief guide to the Work at Height Regulations. The guide outlines what people must do to comply with the Regulations, which came into effect on 6 April 2005.

Dr Elizabeth Gibby, Director of HSE's Injuries Reduction Programme, said: "This guidance is aimed principally at small businesses and those not familiar with the Work at Height Regulations. It gives an excellent short introduction to the new Regulations and how to work at height safely."

"Some in the construction industry are concerned about what the Regulations mean for standards of work above two metres. These Regulations are aimed at maintaining and improving standards for all work at height. Standards for work above two metres will not change, they are simply being extended to work at any height."

The Work at Height Regulations 2005 - a brief guide is available on the HSE website at: www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg401.pdf It will also be available free from HSE Books.

This guide outlines the requirements of the Work at Height Regulations 2005 and what employers and those who work at height must do to comply.

Copies of the Work at Height Regulations (SI 2005 No. 735) are available from the HMSO website at: www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2005/735/made. Printed copies are published by The Stationery Office Ltd (TSO). For further details, please contact TSO, Tel: 0870 6005522; fax: 0870 600 5533; Email: customer.services@tso.co.uk

The Regulations implement Council Directive 2001/45 EC on the minimum safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment by workers at work (the Temporary Work at Height Directive). This is the second amendment to the Use of Work Equipment Directive (89/655/EEC).

Copies of The Work at Height Regulations 2005: A brief guide ref INDG 401 are available from HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, tel: 01787 881165 or fax: 01787 313995


Continued wage moderation across Europe

European workers' wages increased by less in 2004 than in previous years, the Foundation's European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO) reveals in its annual update of collectively agreed pay increases. Confirming a continuing slowdown of pay increases, the average nominal increases across the EU25 fell from 4.2% in 2003 to 4.0% in 2004, although there were major variations between countries. When adjusted for inflation, workers in the majority of EU Member States received real pay increases in 2004, ranging from 0.1 to 4,5%. For workers in Germany (-0.2), Malta (-0,3), Spain (-0,3), Austria (-0,4) and Cyprus (-1,8%), inflation outstripped the nominal pay increases for 2004.

This annual update from the Foundation's European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO) aims to provide a broad, general indication of trends in pay increases over 2003 and 2004 across the EU Member States, two candidate countries (Bulgaria and Romania) and Norway. This review also looks at collectively agreed pay increases in selected sectors (chemicals, retail and the civil service), increases in average earnings and minimum wages, and the gender pay gap.

'Collective bargaining plays a significant role in pay setting in all EU25 countries,' says Willy Buschak, Acting Director of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, the Dublin-based EU agency. 'The share of the workforce in the EU25 countries that have their pay and conditions set, at least to some extent, by collective agreements stands at around two-thirds, although considerably lower in many of countries.'

The average real pay increase in the ten new Member States exceeded that in the EU15 (excluding France, including Norway) in both 2003 and 2004. For the former EU15 countries, the range of real pay increases in 2004 was between 2.9% in Greece and -0.4% in Austria. The real average increase in the former EU15 countries stood at 0.9% in 2004, down from an average of 1,3% a year earlier.

In the new Member States, real pay increases varied between 4.5% in Lithuania and -1.8% in Cyprus, indicating a wider range than in the former EU15 countries. The real average increase in the new Member States came in it at 1.2% in 2004, down from 2.9% in the previous year.

The full report is available on www.eiro.eurofound.eu.int/2005/03/update/tn0503103u.html

Måns Mårtensson, Press Officer, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughlinstown, Dublin 18, Ireland | Tel: +353-1-204 3124 | Fax: +353-1-282 6456 | Mobile: +353-876-593 507 | Email: mma@eurofound.eu.int | www.eurofound.europa.eu/press


David Eves CB, will talk at the EurOhse2005 conference: creating a winning OSH culture to be held 30 November 2005 - 1 December 2005, Stratford Manor Hotel, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, UK

If you think OSH costs are high, try having an accident! Cost benefit analysis of accidents and ill health and getting senior directors involved will be discussed by David Eves CB at the EurOhse2005 conference: creating a winning OSH culture to be held on 30 November 2005 - 1 December 2005 at the Stratford Manor Hotel, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, UK. This is the third year for this very popular, informative conference that keeps you up-to-date and provides excellent networking opportunities.

From 1974 to 2002, David Eves served on Britain's Health and Safety Executive (HSE). In 1989 he was appointed Deputy Directory General of HSE, overseeing the enforcement and investigative activities of HSE's Inspectorates throughout Great Britain including nuclear, mining, railways and offshore. David's significant contributions have been recognised in numerous awards and honours, notably his appointment as Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) by the Queen in 1992. David is a Fellow and Honorary Vice President of the Institution of

Occupational Safety and Health (FIOSH) and a member of a number of other professional bodies and works as a consultant with Sancroft International Limited.

Chairmen for the two days will be John Howard OBE, CEO RoSPA and Professor Peter Waterhouse, Robens Institute.

EurOHSE 2005 conference will provide key points for future activities for all those responsible for securing good standards of health and safety in the workplace, and excellent networking opportunities.14 eminent speakers with backgrounds in government, inspectorates, industry, research and education will discuss a range of topics.

The programme cover four main areas:

Speakers include:

This is the major conference of 2005! Bookings are coming in fast... Make sure that you have a place and make your reservation now!

For further details contact: EurOhse 2005, Office and Logistics Manager, European Occupational Health and Safety Magazine (EurOhs), Angel Business Communications Ltd, 34 Warwick Road, Kenilworth CV8 1HE, Warwickshire, UK | Tel: +44 (0) 1926 512424 | Fax: +44 (0) 1926 512948 | Email: stephen@angelbc.co.uk


The World Health Organization (WHO) designated April 7, 2005, as World Health Day

The theme was "Make Every Mother and Child Count". As women enter industries and occupations that once were predominantly male, and as more teenagers take on their first job responsibilities, many unique and complex issues arise in regard to the prevention of occupational injuries and illnesses.

US NIOSH is working with diverse partners to answer those questions. Regarding working women's issues, initiatives include:

Assessing exposures and potential health outcomes for airline flight crews. More information is available at www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/flightcrew

Examining potential chemical exposures in drycleaning, where 60 percent of the work force is female. For more information, see www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/dryclean

Studying and making recommendations on issues of concern for employers and employees in health care. For example, are nurses and other health care workers potentially exposed to antineoplastic drugs used in cancer treatment? See www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-165

Are nurses' long or rotating work schedules linked with various self-reported health outcomes?

www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/workschedules

As part of a larger strategic research program on work organization, stress, and health, collecting data for a study to examine job stressors that might predict depression in women.

www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/stress


Nanotechnology Is the Subject of New ASTM International Committee E56

ASTM International, one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world, announced the formation of a new committee to develop international consensus standards, definitions, terminology, and procedures covering nanotechnology. A branch of science and engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers (1 nm equals one-billionth of a meter), nanotechnology may revolutionize all manufactured products, as well as medical, industrial, and scientific procedures.

Opening Doors to New Markets

In the quantum world of 1 to 100 nanometers, a material may possess strange properties that do not exist in its bulk form. Nanotechnology harnesses these electrical, thermal, optical, and magnetic properties to create more perfect products or unique products. Current examples include super-strength polymers, and bandages with remarkable anti-microbial properties. Dramatic future examples may include nanorobots programmed to attack cancer cells, or nanomachines that can replicate anything, such as fuel, water, and food. Consequently, the entire world, including the non-industrialized nations are stakeholders in this new technology.

With nanotechnology research, commercialization and unfortunately, misinformation and hype growing exponentially, researchers, manufacturers, regulators, and academicians need agreed-upon standards for terminology, material properties, and measurement procedures. The absence of such standards impedes scientific communication, technical advancement, new business opportunities, and the public's acceptance of new or better products.

Establishing Committee E56

At a planning meeting on Oct. 1, 2004, held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), key representatives from the many stakeholders affected by nanotechnology, including the government, academic, legal, and industrial sectors unanimously agreed to hold an organizational meeting for the development of this new standardization activity within ASTM International. Various disciplines, including consumers, manufacturers, suppliers, trade and professional societies, and federal agencies were invited to participate.

An organizational meeting was held on Jan. 18, 2005. The culmination of that meeting was a unanimous motion that ASTM International establish a new main committee on nanotechnology chaired by Dr. Vicki Colvin of Rice University's Center for Environmental and Biological Nanotechnology (CBEN). Committee E56 on Nanotechnology is charged with the development of standards and guidance for nanotechnology and nanomaterials. The structure of the committee consists of technical subcommittees in the following areas:

Nanotechnology impacts every nation. According to Akira Ono of Japan's National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and E56 Vice Chairman, "Nanotechnology is a scientific approach with a potential application as vast as the nano world is miniscule. ASTM International Committee E56 on Nanotechnology provides a forum for all existing technical disciplines to collaborate on a global scale." Twelve countries are represented on the E56 membership roster.

An early priority for Committee E56 is the development of a globally relevant, industry-driven terminology standard for nanotechnology. In an effort to facilitate this objective, ASTM has signed partnership agreements with the Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and NSF International. These agreements focus solely on the issue of terminology, and will eliminate redundant resource allocation among a variety of standards organizations, provide for the pooling of technical experts in a single standards development venue and, consequently, help create a truly global terminology document in terms of input as well as application.

As this method of manufacturing will impact almost every conceivable product that exists today, it is critical that representatives from as many business sectors as possible give their input to E56. It is critical that they play a part in developments that will radically impact the economics of, and create new financial opportunities for, every sector of our economy. Conversely, failure to communicate with all stakeholders, including the end consumer, risks distortion, fear, and possible rejection of the many new products that can emerge from nanotechnology. E56 represents the chance to be on the frontier of what may be the most daring and monumental technological and economic development of the 21st century.

Open Meetings and Workshop in May

Interested individuals are encouraged to attend the next meeting of Committee E56, which will take place May 16-18, 2005, in Reno, Nev., USA at the Hilton Reno Resort. Following the meetings, on May 19, at the same hotel, Committee E56 will be cosponsoring a Workshop on Characterization of Nanomaterials for Medical and Health Applications. The workshop will provide a structured venue to address critical issues relevant to transitioning nanotechnology into clinical applications. Cosponsors of the one-day event are the National Cancer Institute, NIST, and the US Food and Drug Administration. For more information on the E56 meetings, the workshop, or for information on Committee E56, contact Pat A. Picariello, director of developmental operations Tel: +1 610/832-9720 | Email: ppicarie@astm.org | www.astm.org/COMMIT/E56.htm


Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, MCS: Environmental Project no. 988, 2005

The report is based on a study of the scientific literature on Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, MCS, in Denmark called odour and chemical hypersensitivity. It is concluded that MCS - a new health disorder which has been described during the last 20 years - is a real condition. MCS differs from the common scientific understanding of illness because the condition is always manifested by multiple non-specific symptoms from different organs at the same time and because these symptoms may occur after exposure to chemicals at very low concentrations

Summary and conclusions

Chemicals are present in our daily environment in ever-increasing quantities, which cause some public concern. The occurrence of a new health disorder, where some people suddenly can no longer tolerate the odour of chemicals at doses far below those known to cause harmful effects, has caused even more concern. The condition referred to above is called Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), where a previously healthy individual experiences multiple, non-specific symptoms when exposed to chemical odours at very low concentrations.

MCS has received much attention abroad, especially in North America. In Denmark only little is known about MCS and the medical establishment has not shown major interest in the condition. In order to be able to fulfil the responsibility of proper environmental administration of chemicals, several uncertainties about MCS need to be answered. Can chemicals cause illness at low concentrations? What mechanisms cause people to become extremely sensitive to chemicals? What kinds of chemicals are involved?

This report gives a comprehensive review of the present state of knowledge and administrative practise regarding MCS in Denmark and abroad, and contributes hereby, hopefully, to a better understanding of the MCS problems.

The report is based on a study of the scientific literature, meetings, workshops and reviews, most of which are from the US. The practises of environmental administrations in European countries and in North America have also been registered.

MCS is a diffusely defined condition that can easily be confounded with other diffuse conditions because the symptoms of several conditions are very similar. Other conditions are fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, sick building syndrome, Gulf War Syndrome and many more so-called environmental diseases.

The definition and tentative diagnosis of MCS is based on seven criteria (Cullen's criteria), which also help to distinguish MCS from other environmental diseases.

Typical cases of MCS have been observed in Denmark among people who have been exposed to organic solvents or pesticides at work. Only a few domestic cases are known, e.g. from indoor use of different products for surface treatment of woods.

In the US the majority of cases of MCS occurs in private homes and is due to exposure to indoor chemicals (VOC) and the extensive use of pesticides. There are several reports on MCS among workers from the US, Sweden and France. These are comparable to the Danish cases.

Prevalence studies from the US show figures between 0.2-6% in the general population. There are no prevalence figures for general populations in Europe. In a study of Swedish housepainters 30% had MCS.

So far there is no final proof of the causal mechanism of MCS. Some evidence on nasal inflammatory and neurosensory dysfunction, on neural sensitisation of the midbrain limbic system and on psychological mechanisms seems more convincing than the other proposed mechanisms, such as immunological, toxic loss of tolerance, somatization and conditioned response.

At this stage it seems most likely that MCS occurs more often in persons who are more sensitive to environmental stressors than others.

There is clear evidence from the epidemiological literature that MCS exists, even though the exact mechanism is not known and there are no demonstrable organic or functional changes.

The condition MCS is assumed to pass on in two steps: the initial phase with exposure often to a high concentration of a chemical substance, and the trigger phase - the subsequent set off of a number of symptoms by exposure to low concentrations of chemicals.

The administrative and preventive action regarding MCS in most countries is that of expectation for the final proof of the causal mechanism of MCS. In Denmark a joint action for preventing chemical gases in building materials may have contributed to a reduction of indoor air pollution in Danish buildings, which indirectly might have contributed to prevent some MCS cases. In Canada decentralised activities by the authorities with public participation for "no scent-policy" have been partly successful. The Swedish and German environmental and public health authorities are undertaking epidemiological studies on MCS at the present time.

A limitation of the risk for exposure to chemicals, both at high and low concentrations, seems to be the primary objective for preventing new cases of MCS. Avoidance of the initial exposure seems especially important, e.g. exposure to high concentrations of solvents after painting of big surfaces or to high concentrations of aerosols (e.g. hairspray) in closed rooms.

The consumers should always know when and to what kinds of chemicals they are exposed to. Consumers can contribute to prevent the break out of MCS-symptoms by avoiding indoor exposure to high concentration of volatile chemicals and by avoiding use of strongly smelling products, including use of perfume and scented products.

Based on the information of this report the following attempts are indicated for reducing exposure to chemicals:

Special attention might be directed towards:

Preventive action for MCS could contribute to a better protection of all those exposed to chemicals, especially the most vulnerable groups. Recognition of the illness MCS would lead to a better understanding of MCS patients and their needs.

www.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2005/87-7614-548-4/html/default_eng.htm


Guide to Legionella Control in Cooling Water Systems, Including Cooling Towers

This information is intended to provide guidance on controlling the growth of Legionella in cooling water systems associated specifically with evaporative condensers and cooling towers in both industrial and air-conditioning situations. Brief details are also given that may be relevant to some other common water handling systems.

Australian Standard AS/NZS 3666 - Air-handling and water systems of buildings- Microbial control, and its supporting document SAA/SNZ HB32 - Control of microbial growth in air-handling and water systems of buildings, specify minimum requirements for design, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of air-handling and water systems in buildings to assist in the control of micro-organisms, including Legionella bacteria.

www.dir.qld.gov.au/workplace/subjects/legionella/control/standards


Global economic security in crisis: New ILO report finds "world full of anxiety and anger"

A new ILO report (Note 1) says that economic security promotes personal well-being, happiness and tolerance, while benefiting growth and social stability. Yet it finds the overwhelming majority of people in a state of economic insecurity, and raises doubts over rich countries' ability to turn wealth into happiness.

For the first time, the ILO report measures global economic security as perceived by ordinary people and workers. Its findings make for grim reading. Nearly three-quarters of all workers live in countries with low levels of economic security and only 8 per cent in countries providing favourable economic security.

What is more, with economic security out of reach for the majority of the world's workers, the report points to "a world full of anxiety and anger". Forms of insecurity, such as irregularity of payments and non-payment of contractual wages, and more restructured and regressive social security schemes, blight the global picture, the report says.

The report is based on a global socioeconomic security databank supplemented by detailed household and workplace surveys covering over 48,000 workers and more than 10,000 workplaces worldwide. Measuring indicators of economic security such as income, representation, employment and skills, the analysis draws sometimes surprising results.

Note 1 - Economic Security for a better world, Socio-Economic Security Programme. International Labour Office, 2004. Price: 50 Swiss francs. ISBN 92-2-115611-7. Website: www.ilo.org/ses


News from Singapore

National Occupational Safety and Health Week 28 April to 4 May 05

Aligning with the new Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) framework, the Ministry of Manpower will be launching the inaugural National OSH Week 2005 on 28 April 2005 to raise the awareness of OSH and to build a safety culture at our workplaces. 28 April has also been declared by the

International Labour Organisation (ILO) as the World Day for Safety and Health at Work. Thus, this national campaign is also in line with international effort on promoting and creating a safety culture to help reduce the number of work-related incidents.

With its theme "Think Safety, Work Safely", the National OSH Week aims to shape the mindset and behaviour of every persons at work such that safety is at the top of everyone's mind whenever we are at work. We have lined up a series of exciting events at the National OSH Week to keep you informed of the key challenges and latest strategies for bringing about a safety culture at the workplace.

For more details of the National OSH Week, see: www.mom.gov.sg/workplace-safety-health

Dr Ho Sweet Far, Deputy Director (Medical), Occupational Health Department, Ministry of Manpower | Tel: 63171117 (DID) | Fax: 63171140 also says...

National Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) Week 2005
OSH Symposium - "Make OSH Your Business Priority & Strategic Advantage" on 28 April 2005

The Ministry of Manpower is launching the inaugural National OSH Week 2005 on 28 April 2005 with the aim to build an OSH culture at all workplaces such that safety is at the top of everyone's mind whenever we are at work.

In line with the National OSH Week, the Ministry together with SNEF and NTUC are organising a tripartite OSH Symposium to provide a platform for CEOs and senior management to understand the benefits of OSH to businesses and latest strategies for bringing about a safety culture at your workplace.

The Symposium held on 28 April 2005 (Thursday) from 9.30 am to 2.00 pm at The Phoenix Ballroom, Level 6, Novotel Clarke Quay Singapore (formerly known as Hotel New Otani Singapore), 177A River Valley Road, Singapore 179031.

www.mom.gov.sg


News from China

The black lung disease has claimed 140,000 lives in the Chinese mainland since the occupational disease report system was founded in 1950s, revealed vice Health Minister Jiang Zuojun at a televised conference for prevention and treatment of occupational diseases held in Beijing on 17 March 17 2005

A total of 580, 000 black lung cases have been reported in China so far, and there are 440, 000 people suffering from black lung disease at present. The number of black lung case is increasing roughly 10,000 annually. In addition, China reports nearly 30, 000 poison cases relating to occupation and use of pesticide in production. About 1,500 people die from poison.

Jiang acknowledged the occupational disease has grown so rampant in some areas that "black lung village" and "poison village" have emerged. Many laborers have become impoverished due to the disease. Moreover inappropriate settlement of disputes over occupational diseases has led to incidents that influence social harmony and stability, including blockade of road, strike, demonstration, and group appeal to higher authority for help. Occupational disease has become a grave problem that harms public health and social stability. Minister Jiang Zuojun at a televised conference for prevention and treatment of occupational diseases held in Beijing March 17.

A total of 580, 000 black lung cases have been reported in China so far, and there are 440, 000 people suffering from black lung disease at present. The number of black lung case is increasing roughly 10,000 annually. In addition, China reports nearly 30, 000 poison cases relating to occupation and use of pesticide in production. About 1,500 people die from poison.

Jiang acknowledged the occupational disease has grown so rampant in some areas that "black lung village" and "poison village" have emerged. Many laborers have become impoverished due to the disease. Moreover inappropriate settlement of disputes over occupational diseases has led to incidents that influence social harmony and stability, including blockade of road, strike, demonstration, and group appeal to higher authority for help. Occupational disease has become a grave problem that harms public health and social stability.

To strengthen prevention and treatment of occupational diseases, the Chinese government has adopted an occupational health review system for construction projects; imposed strict approval for aptitude of service departments for occupational health; rectified diagnosis and appraisal for occupational disease.

The Health Ministry has decided to launch a publicity week with feature "Safeguard laborer's health by prevention of occupational diseases", in which consultation regarding prevention and treatment of occupational disease will be offered to laborers free of charge.

By People's Daily Online

http://english.people.com.cn/200503/18/eng20050318_177365.html


News from Canada

Sleep deficit has an impact on work performance

Although fatigue levels are not easily measured or quantified, studies suggest that fatigue has an impact on work performance. Alberta Human Resources and Employment reports that most accidents occur when people are more likely to want sleep - between midnight and 6 a.m., and between 1 and 3 p.m. And sleep deficit has been linked to large-scale events such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the nuclear accident at Chernobyl.

There are many factors that cause fatigue, but the big one is lack of sleep. People with sleeping disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea or narcolepsy tend not to get enough rest on a given night. Having too much caffeine, alcohol and nicotine in the system can also affect the quality and the amount of sleep. Work-related factors may also cause fatigue, such as shift work, long work hours, long hours of physical or mental activity, insufficient break time between shifts, inadequate rest, excessive stress or a combination of these factors.

Fatigue and the workplace are never a safe combination. A fatigued worker tends to have a reduced ability to make decisions or complex plans. Communication skills are compromised, as are the worker's productivity and performance, attention and vigilance, and reaction time. A fatigued worker may have difficulty remembering things or handling stress. In addition, a fatigued worker - much like someone who is impaired - has an increased tendency to take risks, make errors in judgment, and even fall asleep while operating machinery or driving a vehicle. These risks, and the feeling of fatigue, can be intensified if the work involves boring or repetitive tasks.

WHAT INDIVIDUALS CAN DO TO AVOID FATIGUE
People have different needs when it comes to getting enough rest, but the following general guidelines apply to most:

Have a steady, consistent bedtime routine. That means going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, using the bed primarily for sleeping (not for catching up on office work), and minimizing disruptions from the telephone, TV, radio, and family members. People tend to sleep more easily in a room that's dark, quiet, and cool.

Exercise regularly. This improves overall health and may decrease bedtime restlessness.

Adjust your eating and drinking habits. Have at least three meals a day, including a variety of foods from the four recommended food groups. Snack on healthy food during work breaks to stay nourished and energized. Avoid consuming any caffeine during the five hours before bedtime.

ORGANIZATIONS CAN HELP PREVENT FATIGUE IN THE WORKPLACE
There are several approaches the organization can take to help reduce fatigue by considering shift schedules, promoting health, and providing facilities that support the health of the workers.

Promote alertness. Provide a good working environment with proper lighting, comfortable temperatures, reasonable noise levels, and work tasks that are varied and interesting and change throughout the shift.

Shift schedule design. Consider the direction of rotation of shifts (i.e. rotate forward from day to afternoon to night to help circadian rhythms adjust better) and the time at which a shift starts and finishes. Early morning shifts (5 or 6 a.m.) are associated with shorter sleep and greater fatigue.

Provide rest periods. At least 24 hours after each set of night shifts is advised. The more consecutive nights worked, the more rest time should be allowed before the next rotation occurs.

Provide good cafeteria services. Promote

Shift schedule design. Consider the direction of rotation of shifts (i.e. rotate forward from day to afternoon to night to help circadian rhythms adjust better) and the time at which a shift starts and finishes. Early morning shifts (5 or 6 a.m.) are associated with shorter sleep and greater fatigue.

Provide rest periods. At least 24 hours after each set of night shifts is advised. The more consecutive nights worked, the more rest time should be allowed before the next rotation occurs.

Provide good cafeteria services. Promote health to your workers and enable them to maintain balanced diets.

www.ccohs.ca/newsletters/hsreport/issues/2005/03/ezine.html?id=5112&link=1#inthenews


News from the USA

Health Effects of Welding

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the West Virginia University (WVU) Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health (IOEH) are teaming up to sponsor an international seminar, "Health Effects of Welding," on July 23-24, 2005 in Morgantown, W.Va., USA.

Leading experts from around the world will gather to share the latest information in key research areas regarding potential respiratory, neurological, and reproductive effects associated with welding fumes or inhaled welding particles.

More information about the symposium can be found at www.hsc.wvu.edu/IOEH


Avian Influenza - Joint NIOSH/OSHA Publication

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed the Avian Influenza Protecting Poultry Workers at Risk Safety and Health Information Bulletin. This 8-page guidance document describes measures for protecting poultry workers when an avian influenza outbreak occurs. This document complements avian population disease control and eradication strategies of state governments, industry, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and will aid in the development of biosecurity guidelines and standard operating procedures for the various sectors of the poultry industry.

The bulletin can be accessed at www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib121304.html

Links to the bulletin have been added to the U.S. Poultry and Egg Association Web page, www.poultryegg.org and to the CDC Avian Influenza Web page, www.cdc.gov/flu/avian


New web page - key workplace standards

The American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) has launched a new Web page to provide businesses of all sizes with key workplace safety standards information. The site features timely information on ASSE's standards development activities, standard hot topics and issues, and key technical insights, and provides an opportunity for ASSE members and non-members alike to share expertise on occupational safety, health and environmental efforts in all industries.

www.asse.org/en/index.php/standards-category/new-standards


US Mining Fact Sheets

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has released a series of one-page mining fact sheets covering a variety of topics of general interest relating to mining operations, workers, fatalities, nonfatal lost-time injuries, and occupational illness.

Ten fact sheets are currently available at www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/statistics/facts.htm

IC 9473 Drill Rig Incident: A noise training exercise for drillers, helpers, and anyone exposed to loud noise from a drill rig

This training tool for safety and health professionals can be used to teach workers about noise, hearing loss, and hearing protection. During the exercise, workers answer questions concerning their actions when faced with a potential workplace hazard resulting from a co-worker's prolonged exposure to loud noise. This training tool is available at www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/pubs/pdfs/2005-108.pdf and is a companion piece to the IC 9472: Wearing Hearing Protection Properly: A 3-D Training Aid for Drillers (NIOSH Pub. No 2005-107).


Good Practice Awards 2005 - reducing risks from workplace noise

25 countries to take part in European health and safety award scheme

The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has invited nominations for the sixth European Good Practice Awards. The 2005 award scheme will recognise companies or organisations that have made outstanding and innovative contributions to the prevention of risks from noise at work, this year's central theme of the Agency-run annual safety and health awareness campaign.

Good practice examples are implemented solutions to prevent or reduce risks from noise to workers' safety and health. All entries should show good management, particularly the effective use of risk assessment and implementation of its findings, and be focused on successful prevention of risks to workers. Entries are invited from all EU Member States: they can be submitted by individual enterprises (SMEs' participation is especially much welcome) or by intermediary organisations, including chambers of commerce, trade and professional associations and trade unions. The area covered is quite broad and may range from control and elimination of loud noise from the workplace and sound management methods used to enable effective communication in noisy environments (e.g. by emergency services), to training schemes and awareness-raising education programmes.

The Director of the European Agency, Hans-Horst Konkolewsky, said 'Noise at workplace is still too often viewed as a necessary evil, and, as its effects are not instantaneous, it is not considered a priority. The truth is noise does have a devastating impact on our health and it affects not only workers at steelworks or construction sites, but also millions of people employed in the service sector, e.g. in education, entertainment, or call centres. It can be a causal factor in accidents, contribute to work-related stress, and may act together with other workplace hazards to cause ill health. With the European directive on noise to be implemented early next year, it is high time to take more decisive measures to "stop that noise". We hope the good practice awards will demonstrate, by example, that work-related noise can be effectively controlled.'

This is the sixth year of the awards, which come under the umbrella of the annual European Week for Safety and Health at Work. The Agency will announce the winners at the campaign's closing event in December this year in Bilbao. The awards will provide the winners with European recognition for their role in improving working conditions in Europe, and the awarded examples will be presented in an Agency booklet to be distributed across Europe.

Further information about the awards will be available online at http://osha.europa.eu/en/campaigns/ew2005

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Via 33, E-48009 Bilbao - Spain | Tel: + 34 94 479 4360 | Fax: + 34 94 479 4383 | e-mail: information@osha.eu.int | http://osha.europa.eu


News from the USA

On March 23, 2005 NORA leadership met with the NIOSH Board of Scientific Counsellors (BSC) in Washington, D.C., to discuss plans for the next decade of NORA. Participants discussed using a sector based approach to broaden stakeholder involvement among academia, industry, and labor groups. Under this proposed structure for the next decade of NORA, tentatively called NORA-2, NIOSH and its partners would form sector research councils representing eight groupings of sectors in order to focus research goals, objectives, and results.

The proposed sector research councils are for agriculture, forestry, and fishing; mining; construction; manufacturing; trade; transportation, warehousing, and utilities; services; and health care and social assistance.

Each sector and some sub-sectors would identify the top safety and health concerns in their sectors and develop a strategic research agenda based on those priorities. In addition, a cross-cutting group would be formed, comprising coordinators for the eight research sectors, to identify opportunities for common research across sectors. NORA leadership also outlined plans for including global health and research to practice as themes in the next decade of NORA.

On April 26 2005, NORA marked its ninth year. NIOSH plans a year of activities to recognize past NORA achievements and to plan for the next ten years of NORA research. NIOSH will be requesting feedback and suggestions from stakeholders, including our eNews readership. The May 2005 edition of eNews will present more information about the new NORA structure and offer opportunities for eNews readers to share their comments and suggestions.


Call for Papers: Work, Stress and Health 2006: Making a Difference in the Workplace

NIOSH, the American Psychological Association, the National Institute of Justice of the U.S. Department of Justice, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research of the U.S. Department of Education, and the U.S. Department of Labor, will convene the sixth international conference on occupational stress and health, Work, Stress, and Health 2006: Making a Difference in the Workplace in Miami, Fla., March 2-4, 2006, at the Hyatt Regency Miami Hotel.

The conference is designed to address the constantly changing nature of work, and the implications of these changes for the health, safety, and well-being of workers. In keeping with the conference theme of "making a difference in the workplace," there will be a particular focus on the translation of research to practice and workplace programs, policies, practices, case experiences, and other efforts to prevent stress in today's workplace. The deadline to submit proposals is May 1, 2005.

More information about the conference and the call for papers can be found at: www.apa.org/pi/work/callforpapers.html


News from Sweden and USA

Occupational and Environmental Exposures of Skin to Chemicals-2005

NIOSH, the Karolinska Institutet and the Stockholm County Council in Sweden are cosponsoring Occupational and Environmental Exposures of Skin to Chemicals-2005 in Stockholm, Sweden, June 12-15, 2005. The conference will focus on practical ways to better prevent local and systemic injury and disease caused by exposing skin to chemicals. More information on the conference is available at www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin/OEESC2 or by contacting Sid Soderholm at SSoderholm@cdc.gov


Call for Papers: Advanced Personal Protective Equipment - Challenges in Protecting First Responders

The NIOSH National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL) and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University are sponsoring Advanced Personal Protective Equipment - Challenges in Protecting First Responders.

The conference will be held October 16-18, 2005 at the Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center in Blacksburg, Va. USA.

Attendees will learn about the hazards posed by emerging threats, the application of personal protective equipment (PPE) technology to these threats, and associated challenges with selecting and interfacing different PPE items. The emphasis of the conference will be on practical issues of threat accommodation, standards, regulations, applications of best practices, manufacturing and distribution issues, PPE decision-making and purchasing, and multi-PPE integration.

More information on the conference can be found by contacting Tom Fisher at Tfisher@cdc.gov


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OSHE websites to explore

The following may be of interest to OSHE information seekers, if you have a favourite website please let me know... Also look at www.oshworld.com at the links under country and also under subject.

SPAIN

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work: Stop that Noise 2005 European Week for Safety and Health at Work   SPAIN
http://osha.europa.eu/en/campaigns/ew2005

The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 2005 European Week for Safety and Health at Work will focus on the issue of noise at work, under the slogan, 'Stop that noise!', with the tagline, 'Noise at work - it can cost you more than your hearing'. The campaign is backed by all Member States, candidate and EFTA countries, the Luxembourg and United Kingdom EU Presidencies, the European Commission and Parliament, trade unions and employers' federations. Gives details of the programme, publications and web features.

SWITZERLAND

World Health Organization: Avian influenza   SWITZERLAND
www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en

World Health Organisation avian influenza guidance, advice, assessment of risk to human health, frequently asked questions, factsheet and information on pandemic preparation.

UK

Health and Safety Executive: Construction designers advice   UK
www.hse.gov.uk/construction/cdm/designers.htm

Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2004 initiative report for designers can be viewed on the construction pages of the HSE website that gives more information for designers.

Health and Safety Executive: Control of Substances Hazardous to Health - COSHH   UK
www.hse.gov.uk/coshh/index.htm

Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Control of Substances Hazardous to Health - COSHH advice and guidance. Using chemicals or other hazardous substances at work can put people's health at risk. So the law requires employers to control exposure to hazardous substances to prevent ill health.

OSHWORLD   UK
www.oshworld.com

This portal to the major occupational safety, health, chemical and fire sources has been established for a number of years and constantly enlarging. It has a number of regular updated features- editorial, Focus, News, Diary of Events and links to specific web sites around the world. These web sites are classified by country and also by subject. Try for yourself this one-stop shop to OSH information and more!

USA

American Society of Safety Engineers   USA
www.asse.org/en/index.php/standards-category/new-standards

American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) web page to provide businesses of all sizes with key workplace safety standards information. The site features timely information on ASSE's standards development activities, standard hot topics and issues, and key technical insights, and provides an opportunity for ASSE members and non-members alike to share expertise on occupational safety, health and environmental efforts in all industries.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Avian Influenza   USA
www.cdc.gov/flu/avian

Center for Disease Control (CDC) Avian Influenza webpage provides background information about avian influenza, including recent outbreaks, the viruses, and the risk to human health.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health: Avian Influenza - Joint NIOSH/OSHA Publication   USA
www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib121304.html

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed the Avian Influenza Protecting Poultry Workers at Risk Safety and Health Information Bulletin. This 8-page guidance document describes measures for protecting poultry workers when an avian influenza outbreak occurs. This document complements avian population disease control and eradication strategies of state governments, industry, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and will aid in the development of biosecurity guidelines and standard operating procedures for the various sectors of the poultry industry.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): Evaluation of ergonomic stressors and musculoskeletal disorders at an ice cream products manufacturing plant   USA
www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/2004-0001-2937.pdf

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) scientific investigators found increasing musculoskeletal injury rates at an ice cream products manufacturing plant in recent years. The evaluation linked the risk of such injuries with highly repetitive physical work activities, and tools that were poorly designed for their intended functions. They offered recommendations to the company to improve working conditions and prevent the development of tendonitis; strains to the shoulders, elbows, wrists, and fingers; and upper and lower back disorders. The full report is available in this web site.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): Mining   USA
www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/statistics/facts.htm
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has released a series of one-page mining fact sheets covering a variety of topics of general interest relating to mining operations, workers, fatalities, nonfatal lost-time injuries, and occupational illness.


Diary of Events

29 November 2005 - EurOhse Masterclass on Fire Risk Assessment and Business Continuity, Planning and Management
Held in conjunction with the 3rd EurOhse Conference organised by Sheila Pantry Associates Ltd and Angel Business Communications Ltd
Stratford Manor Hotel, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, UK
Contact: Stephen Whitehurst, European Occupational Health and Safety Magazine (EurOhs), Angel Business Communications Ltd | 34 Warwick Road, Kenilworth CV8 1HE, Warwickshire, UK | Tel: +44 (0)1926 512424 | Fax: + 44 (0)1926 512948 | Email: sv@angelbc.co.uk

30 November 2005 - 1 December 2005 - EurOhse2005: creating a winning OSH culture
3rd EurOhse Conference organised by Sheila Pantry Associates Ltd and Angel Business Communications Ltd
Stratford Manor Hotel, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire, UK
Contact: Stephen Whitehurst, European Occupational Health and Safety Magazine (EurOhs), Angel Business Communications Ltd | 34 Warwick Road, Kenilworth CV8 1HE, Warwickshire, UK | Tel: +44 (0)1926 512424 | Fax: + 44 (0)1926 512948 | Email: sv@angelbc.co.uk

12-14 June 2005 - Fifth International Symposium on Modern Principles of Air Monitoring
Loen, Norway
Contact: Yngvar Thomassen, National Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 8149 Dep, NO-0033 Oslo Norway | Tel: +47 23 19 53 20 | Fax: +47 23 19 52 06 | Email: yngvar.thomassen@stami.no

29 June 2005 - National Fork Lift Truck Conference
Warwick University, Warwick, UK
Contact: Fork Lift Truck Association, UK | Tel: +44 (0)1256 381 441 | Email: mail@fork-truck.org.uk | www.fork-truck.org.uk

6 July 2005 - Training Course - COSHH for the Educational Environment
Oliver Cromwell Hotel, High Street, March, Cambridgeshire, UK
Contact: Environmental Science Limited, 3 Station Approach, Station Road, March. Cambridgeshire. PE15 8SJ, UK | Tel: + 44 (0) 1354 653222 | Fax: +44 (0) 1354-655030) | Email: sales@esldatasheets.com | www.esldatasheets.com

13 July 2005 - Training Course - COSHH for the Educational Environment
Oliver Cromwell Hotel, High Street, March, Cambridgeshire, UK
Contact: Environmental Science Limited, 3 Station Approach, Station Road, March. Cambridgeshire PE15 8SJ, UK | Tel: + 44 (0) 1354 653222 | Fax: +44 (0) 1354-655030) | Email: sales@esldatasheets.com | www.esldatasheets.com

28 August - 2 September 2005 - Seventh International Course on Occupational Dermatology
Sokos Hotel Viru, Tallinn, Estonia
Contact: Pirjo Turtiainen, NIVA, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland | Tel: +358 30 474 2349 | Fax: +358 30 474 2497 | Email: pirjo.turtiainen@ttl.fi | www.niva.org

5-9 September 2005 - Fourth International Course on Occupational Exposure Limits
Uppsla, Sweden
Contact: Gunilla Rasi, NIVA, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FIN-00250 Helsinki, FINLAND | Tel: +358 30 474 2498 | Fax: +358 30 474 2497 | Email: gunilla.rasi@ttl.fi | www.niva.org

9-14 September 2005 - North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology 2005
JW Marriott Hotel, Orlando, Florida, USA
Contact: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, 777 East Park Drive, PO Box 8820, Harrisburg, PA 17105-8820, USA | Tel: +1 925 828 7100 | Fax: +1 925 828 221 | www.clintox.org

20-23 September 2005 - Second International Course on Absence from work and early retirement
Quality Hotel Marina, Vedbaek - Copenhagen, Denmark
Contact: Gunilla Rasi, NIVA, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FIN-00250 Helsinki, FINLAND | Tel: +358 30 474 2498 | Fax: +358 30 474 2497 | Email: gunilla.rasi@ttl.fi | www.niva.org

9-13 October 2005 - First International Course on Work Environment in the Health Care Sector
Hotel Frederiksdal, Lyngby, Denmark
Contact: Annika Bärlund, NIVA, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FIN 00250 Helsinki, Finland. | Tel: +358 30 474 2333 | Fax: +358 30 474 2497 | Email: annika.barlund@ttl.fi | www.niva.org

13-19 October 2005 - Eighth International Course on the Introduction to Occupational Epidemiology
Hotel Gentofte, Gentofte - Copenhagen, Denmark
Contact: Gunilla Rasi, NIVA, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FIN-00250 Helsinki, FINLAND | Tel: +358 30 474 2498 | Fax: +358 30 474 2497 | Email: gunilla.rasi@ttl.fi | www.niva.org